Proceedings of The 3rd world conference on Future of Education
Student Self-efficacy, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Emotional Engagement: Age and Gender Differences
Student self-efficacy is defined as an individual’s belief of being able to perform certain actions necessary for achieving a specific goal, i.e. the belief one is capable of organising and performing actions in a way needed to attain the planned types of effect. Engagement is defined as a measure of student involvement, connectedness and devotion to academic and social school activities. Three-component engagement model includes cognitive, emotional and behavioral engagement. The basic presumption in the research of student self-efficiency and engagement is that, for the students to achieve success in schooling, not only regular class attendance is sufficient but also students’ work engagement and belief they are capable of performing the required tasks.
The main goal of this research was to examine the differences between the students in their self-efficiency and engagement regarding gender and age. The research included 659 students from the 4th to the 8th grade of a primary school in Zagreb in Croatia. The sample encompassed 330 girls and 329 boys of the average age of 11.37 years (SD=1,73). The implementation of the one-way analysis of variance found statistically significant differences in the perceptions of self-efficacy and engagement, wherein younger students (4th and 5th grade) assessed all the examined variables as higher. In examining gender differences, statistically significant differences were found in the engagement dimensions, wherein girls show higher cognitive, behavioral and emotional engagement, but are not different in self-efficacy.
Keywords: behavioral engagement; cognitive engagement; emotional engagement; self-efficacy.