Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Future of Social Sciences and Humanities
The Endogeneity Issue in the Gender and Trade Liberalisation Relationship: A Sector-Wise Perspective in SADC Member Countries
Dr. Taruna Shalini Ramessur
This paper adopts the System Generalised Method of Moments (SGMM) to examine the impact of trade liberalisation on gender inequality in the labour market, within Southern African Development Community (SADC). Its main contribution is that it adopts a sectoral approach and treats the issue of endogeneity that is been ignored by the existing literature in this field. The findings reveal that trade liberalisation in SADC has not been gender neutral, particularly in the manufacturing and services sector. In the former case trade liberalisation through intense international competition has increased the roll out of technical advances which in turn resulted in job losses for women while creating job opportunities for men. In addition, following trade liberalisation job prospects for women expanded in the services sector. Nevertheless, even in the latter sector female workers tend to be confined to low-skilled and low-productivity jobs. These results call for a package of policy mix including skill-enhancement programmes, on the job training, land reform, mobilisation of resources to enhance female access and right to land, support from trading partners, effective implementation of support programmes and increased female voice through social capital, so that the trade liberalisation measures and policies in SADC benefit women.
keywords: Gender, SADC, Trade Liberalisation, Nexus