Proceedings of The International Conference on Social Sciences in the 21st Century
Typology of musical cultures of Central Asia(aspects of commonality of language and economic-cultural types)
The article raises the problem of comparative-typological study of Central Asian musical cultures. There is a huge diversity of ethnic and musical traditions in this region, which are still poorly investigated comparatively. The purpose of the study is to consider the issues related to geographical-territorial, linguistic, economic-cultural parameters of Central Asian region, which played a major role in formation of different superethnic communities and cultural systems. The methods of modern ethnology and ethnomusicology with data and methods of related sciences and comparative-historical, comparative-typological and other methods were used. The author believes that the main Central Asian superethnoses – Turkic-Mongolian and Turkic-Iranian – belong to different Eastern (nomadic and settledagricultural) cultural civilizations. Creators of nomadic civilization (Eastern Turkic and Mongolian peoples) are labeled by scientists as Tengrian superethnos, in contrast to Muslim superethnos, which was joined by most of Western Turks. The successors of Central Asian nomadic civilization are all modern Turkic and Mongolian peoples. In this question, the scientist borrows G. Vico’s idea about cyclicity of civilizations and presence of the era of gods (ancient period – mythology), the era of heroes (middle ages – heroic epic) and the era of people (new time – lyrics) in each of them. Representatives of Turkic-Mongolian (Tengrian) superethnos preserved the most archaic layers of music and its core elements that form the basis of the Turkic musical thinking (bourdon, guttural singing). We can talk about the actual cultural assimilation of Western Turks, who settled and fell under the influence of local musical cultures of the Middle East (makamat).
Keywords: nomads, superethnos, Tengrism, bourdon, polyphony.