Proceedings of The International Conference on Social Sciences in the 21st Century
Development of News organization’s Credibility Indicators in Thai News Industry: The Literature review for Creating the definition and indicators of Credibility of News organization, journalist and News
This study aimed to 1) Analyse the studies concerning credibility of news media organization journalist and news which had been conducted between 1978 CE – 2017CE .The samples were 94 studies by purposive sampling the studies that used or developed credibility indicators and 2) synthesize those studies for creating the definition and measurement of credibility. The coding forms were used to collect the data derive from content analysis of the studies on credibility (Holsti ‘R= 0.80-1.00). It was found that majority of the studies were about media credibility followed by message credibility and the least were source credibility. There was not the study about journalist credibility. The most of the study used survey method to answer research questions followed by experimental the left were mixed method such as survey and Depth interview, survey and experimental researches. The majority of population were Journalism and mass communication students, probability sampling; simple random and systematic sampling were used. The Questionnaires were used to collect the data, and Factor Analysis, T-test, one way ANOVA, MANCOVA, Correlation and SEM were the inferential statistics used to test hypothesis. Almost researchers measured the media credibility by the Meyer’s media credibility index (Philip Meyer,1988) consisted of 5 variables that measured fairness ,unbiased, tells the whole story/completeness , accuracy, and can be trusted/ trustworthiness. The 12 indicators of news credibility was identified by Cecilie Gaziano and Kristin McGrath (1986) that used and adjustd by other scholars .These 12 items were fairness, unbiased, telling the whole story, accuracy, respects people’s privacy, watches out after people’s interests, concerned about the community’s well-being, separates facts from opinions, can be trusted,concerned about the public interest, factual and have well trained Reporters. The definition and indicators of credibility that created from synthesizing the studies are
1. News media organization credibility is the receivers’ perception that news media organization provides information that is neutral, balanced, unbiased, in-depth, comprehensive, separating facts from opinions. Deal fairly with all sides of a political or social issue, offers everything the receiver need to know on the topic, caring about its readers, concemed with community’s well-being, concemed mainly about the public, appears to have experts on the topics discussed, appears to be a leader in its area of specialty, trustworthy, and is ethical. 2. News credibility is the receivers’ perception of news as a plausible reflection of the event they depict, using a 5 point Likert scale. The credibility index are as follow: fairness , unbiased, telling the whole story, accuracy, clear and concise , respects people’s privacy , watches out after people’s interests, concerned about the community’s well-being ,separates facts from opinions ,can be trusted,concerned about the public interest, factual and have well trained Reporters.
Keywords: News organization, Credibility indicators, journalist, News, News Industry.