The French mandate or the independence Process in Lebanon in 1920 and 1943

Proceedings of The 6th World Conference on Research in Social Sciences

Year: 2023



The French mandate or the independence Process in Lebanon in 1920 and 1943

Linda Rizk Saber



This paper emphasizes the origins of the French Mandate in Lebanon, from the French interventions in the Ottoman Empire until the 1916 Sykes-Picot agreements. It provides a comprehensive overview of the contemporary history of Lebanon and the Middle East. The Middle East has consistently held geopolitical significance, characterized by intricate socio-political shifts, conflicts, and a mosaic of diverse cultures. Over recent decades, Lebanon has emerged as a microcosm that encapsulates the multifaceted dynamics inherent in the contemporary history of the Middle East and offers insights into the region’s challenges and opportunities.

The French Mandate, established in 1920, is part of the French colonial policies regarding the principles identified by Woodrow Wilson after WWI. We study the period between 1920 and 1943 through the question of the state-building process, which became more effective in 1926. This paper also aims to shed light on the contribution of France to the birth of a local political elite. Addition to define the role of French political and military figures in accelerating the independence process during WWII, such as Charles de Gaulle and General Catroux. Furthermore, analyzing the mandate will enable us to understand the significance of French presence in the Levant, France’s perspective on this region, and the Lebanese populace’s reaction to its existence.

keywords: Independence, Levant, Mandate, Right to self-determination, National pact