A Phenomenological Exploration in the Philosophy Curriculum for Children (P4C)

Proceedings of The 6th International Conference on Teaching, Learning and Education

Year: 2023



A Phenomenological Exploration in the Philosophy Curriculum for Children (P4C)

Shahrbanoo Hassani




The aim of this study was to phenomenologically explain the consequences of implementing a philosophy curriculum for children from the perspective of the presenters of this program. Phenomenography is qualitative research that examines and analyzes phenomena based on the lived experiences of others. Participants in this study are 21 primary school teachers in Tehran province who were purposefully selected based on criteria because they were the best informants for this study. In this study, the researcher has used interview tools (in-depth and semi-structured interviews) according to the purpose, the type and nature of research questions. All interviews of these 21 teachers were recorded and handwritten immediately after stating the objectives of the research to the participants in order to provide the necessary feedback for subsequent interviews or data adequacy and saturation. The average interview time was about 55 minutes. The data of this study were qualitative data based on interviews; to analyze the data, a descriptive-analytical approach has been used, making advantage of coding at both open and axial levels. In this study, two main questions and some sub-questions were asked during the interview to deepen the information and saturate the data. The main questions were about the attitude of the presenters towards the philosophy curriculum for children and the consequences of this program in children, and ATLAS.ti 8 software was used to codify the interviews. In addition to coding, revision was also done by technical professors and experts; in the way that, the findings were analyzed and the conclusions were shared with other professors and researchers who were familiar with both the educational environment and the purpose of the research, as well as qualitative research, and finally the work process was confirmed. Totally 346 codes were extracted, which was reduced to 42 codes after deleting similar codes, which were classified into 6 components and 3 dimensions. The results confirm that the philosophy curriculum for children develops thinking skills in children and promotes their individual and social development.

keywords: Curriculum, Phenomenology, Philosophy for Children P4C