Proceedings of The 6th International Conference on Advanced Research in Education, Teaching and Learning
Taiwanese middle school students’ goal orientation in citizenship and social studies
The purpose of this study was to design a questionnaire to measure middle school students’ goal orientation in citizenship and social studies. Multistage sampling was employed to administer the questionnaire to middle school students throughout Taiwan. A total of 1,932 completed questionnaires were collected. Reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed the scales had satisfactory internal consistency, validity, and goodness of fit. Furthermore, the participants exhibited a moderately high level of goal orientation in the subject. Of the six dimensions of goal orientation, self-avoidance was considered to be the most essential. The results further revealed that the goal orientations of male and female students as well as those in different grades differed. In essence, the questionnaire exhibited satisfactory quality and its reliability and validity were verified.
keywords: citizenship and social studies, goal orientation, middle school, Taiwan.