The Impact of the Covid-19 upon Female Entrepreneurs in Ghana

Proceedings of The 5th Global Conference on Women’s Studies

Year: 2023



The Impact of the Covid-19 upon Female Entrepreneurs in Ghana

Zihao Zhuang



This paper examines the nature of female-led businesses in Ghana through qualitative research methods including archival analysis, first-hand observation, and case studies. Female entrepreneurs in Ghana face numerous disadvantages such as a lack of capital and unfavorable working conditions. Female entrepreneurs have a hard time securing credit and funding in Ghana. The majority of the women are illiterate, and they are culturally and socially handicapped. Women are expected to take care of their families. The history of Ghana has not been encouraging for entrepreneurship in general and for women in particular. The majority of women entrepreneur share micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Ghana. The paper scrutinizes the impact of Covid-19 on female entrepreneurs in Ghana. It explores how female entrepreneurs in Ghana survive and grow their businesses during the pandemic and post-coronavirus world. It finds that the introduction of lockdowns, social-distancing protocols and travel/movement restrictions have led to many businesses bankrupt. In West Africa where Ghana belongs, 90.2% of women work in the informal economy. They range from light manufacturing, agriculture, agri-business and services. Female entrepreneurs in Ghana are taking the brunt of the Covid-19. Women working in the informal economy are vulnerable to impoverishment, hunger, and disease if they lose their livelihoods. The pandemic has also mandated millions of people to lose their livelihoods. Policy recommendations have been made at the end of the paper.

keywords: Female entrepreneurs, informal economy, the impact of Covid-19