Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Social Sciences in the 21st Century
Social Justice through Affirmative Action Policy in BRICS Countries: A Sociological Perspective
Dr. Joy Prakash Chowdhuri
BRICS is an association of five major emerging economies namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, house 41 percent of the world population (3.1 billion people) and have more than 30 percent of global GDP. The group has a significant influence on world geopolitics, markets, and regional economies. Social inclusion, the fight against poverty, inclusive and sustainable development, and national sovereignty are some of the important flagship agendas of BRICS. The BRICS is one the most evident products of the change process in social inclusion and development in the emerging economies. In spite of significant achievements like reduction in infant mortality, maternity mortality rate, and poverty; social inclusion is still a crucial debatable issue in BRICS due to diversified growth models of the countries which have comprehensive social protection system not only for the economic growth but also for improving the social situation.
Considering these elements justifies the intention of social inclusion, but are these actions affirmative, keeping in view the heterogeneous social groups and their problems in BRICS along with hegemonic dynamics of power and markets leading to the new multilateral arrangement, which may set the developmental and inclusion needs of the diversified population at vindication.
Affirmative action means the special consideration for disadvantaged groups in publicly funded opportunities. The words, affirmative action do not appear in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the foundation document for contemporary human rights discourse. The declaration does, however, contain two intellectual anchors for affirmative action. First, the declaration repeatedly endorses the principle of human equality. Second, it declares that everyone has the right to work, to an adequate standard of living, and to education. The declaration does not command that all will share equally, but it does suggest strongly that there are minimum levels of employment, education, and subsistence that all should share.