Proceedings of The 10th International Conference on Research in Engineering, Science and Technology
Repercussion of Petroleum Industry and Vehicle Emissions on Kirkuk Air Quality Using GIS
Shaho Abdulqader Mohamedali, Mohammed Hashim Ameen, Abdulla Saeb Tais and Roja Osman Hamad
Crude oil and gas are crucial for energy supply throughout the globe. Drilling, transportation, and refining process of crude oil can release a lot of Volatile Organic Compounds, Formaldehyde, Carbon Monoxide, and Primarily Hydrogen Sulfides. Emissions from vehicle engines is another factor that causes a dramatic increase in carbon monoxide levels at traffic intersections. The Impact of these factors on Kirkuk air quality has been determined through measuring TVOCs, HCHO, CO, and H2S at different sites in the city. It has been observed that the concentration of TVOCs exceeds the threshold limit in almost all the measured sites; in the northern part due to refineries presence or in the mid and southern part due to the high number of traffic crosses, where the highest observed value was 2.479 mg/m3 at NOC refinery area. High levels of HCHO was also recorded at NOC refinery area. The environmental impacts of the petroleum industry were visible based on high detection of H2S transcending the weighted average limit recommended by ACGIH at all areas near oil refineries and it has spread to Sekanyan urban area. Also, the LEL concentration measured denotes the existence of combustible gas near refineries and in two residential areas Araffa and Sekanyan. Besides, Traffic congestion demonstrated release of CO gas at traffic crosses exceeding the World Health Organization limitation and the Environmental Protection Agency limitation in Tisin and Noor Alkabir mosque traffic crosses respectively. Fortunately, the Oxygen level detected lies within the safe range.
Keywords: Oil industry, air pollution, IDW, developing countries, gas emissions.