Proceedings of The 6th International Conference on Future of Social Sciences
The Evolving Roles of Women in National Politics: A Literature Review
Khwanta Benchakhan, Waiphot Kulachai
Global gender disparities persist in political power and participation, undermining inclusive governance, rights, and equitable policymaking. Comprehensively analyzing women’s evolving political roles is critical, given profound leadership implications. This literature review traces women’s journey from suffrage movements to contemporary leadership across dimensions of participation, barriers, leadership impact, interventions, and prospects. Synthesizing academic and real-world evidence, achievements are highlighted alongside continuous challenges. Social media and political disruption prove double-edged, both enabling and hindering progress. Although female leadership positively impacts climate, gender budgets, and more, a supportive institutional ecosystem remains vital. Despite strides made in many contexts, cross-cutting gaps exist – online harassment, discriminatory norms, and biased media portrayal necessitate multifaceted strategies centered on inclusion, safety, and cultural change. While celebrating progress, gender equality in politics remains an unfinished agenda. Sustained structural efforts and feminist advocacy must persist to dismantle historical barriers, shaping an equitable political future where women participate freely. By informing advocacy, research, and reforms, this review aims to further the realization of women’s political rights globally. Key findings suggest that women’s leadership substantively impacts policy. However, translational outcomes remain contingent on strong institutional ecosystems. Additionally, political disruption and online spaces can simultaneously expand and restrict participation possibilities.
Keywords: Women in Politics, Political Participation, Female Representation, Gender Equality, Suffrage Movement