Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Future of Business, Management and Economics (Part A)
How Population Control Policies Affect Fertility Decline: An Empirical Analysis
This study aims to empirically examine the role of population control policies in fertility decline across 92 developing countries over the period 1960-2014. This study also attempts to explain the fertility regulation using the annual data on infant mortality, income per capita, female educational attainment, and culture for 92 developing countries over the period 1960-2014. External instruments such as health aid, people’s access to safe drinking water, measles immunization, democracy, precipitation, etc. are used to deal with the severe endogeneity. For this purpose, Pooled OLS, Fixed Effect model, Instrumental Variables (2SLS), System GMM, and Lewbel 2SLS are used as an appropriate techniques to estimate the relationship between population control policies as well as socio-economic factors and fertility decline. The dummy variable for the government policies to control fertility and government support for family planning programs has been used in the regression. The results suggest that increased government policies to influence the level of fertility, higher government support for family planning programs, increased female educational attainment, low child mortality, higher economic growth, and increased secularization results in fertility decline in developing countries.
keywords: Fertility, Population, Policies, Mortality Population Control Policies