Proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Research in Humanities
Waste Water Treatment in UK with Low-Cost Technologies Using Farm Ponds
In general, the sanitation field seems to live the life of an orphan in many Pacific Island Countries. In many cases this important sector of public health has been left alone when major upgrading projects improved the water supply systems in many countries and provinces. This basically ignored the downstream effect of improved water supply, that of increased discharges into rivers or aquifers. Two reasons appear to be the major cause for that: firstly, wastewater collection and treatment is costly and their benefit often hard to show; and secondly, even if low-cost solutions are being implemented many projects fail to deliver the expected outcome. Without pretending to reflect the complexity of sanitation projects three principal reasons may be held accountable for the non-delivery problems: · The technology was not appropriate, · The beneficiary was not involved and consulted sufficiently, and · The responsibilities within government were not resolved to ensure the necessary support. During the last years many rural areas were provided with some kind of water supply system. The availability of water leads to wider spread use of flush toilet systems. These systems mainly use simple toilets to discard the waste water either directly into the porous underground or into simple holes. At the same time many villages still supplement their water supply from shallow wells which are often located in the direct neighbourhood of the toilets. Even if landowners consider the possible contamination of their well through their own toilet and locate them far apart they can not avoid the location of their neighbour’s toilet close to their well. A similar risk of water body contamination occurs where villages situated on the banks of a small estuary/lagoon discharge their wastewater without treatment.It is expected that Small Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants (SSWTP), under certain circumstances, are the solution for these problems. More specifically the SSWTP technology could be applied where, · conventional sewage is simply too costly, · environmental conditions require a high effluent quality, · conventional on-site treatment proved to be of low community acceptance, · low technology solution, such as composting toilets seem to be inappropriate The main purpose of the project is to identify: · current wastewater disposal and treatment techniques, · ongoing sanitation initiatives and projects, · stakeholders in the sanitation sector, · the administration structures related to sanitation projects, · a possible project implementation agency, · sites for future pilot projects.
keywords: waste water treatment, evaluation, low scale technologies.