Comparing The Accuracy Classification of the Machine Learning Algorithms Using Anxiety Data

Proceedings of The 4th International Conference on Modern Research in Social Sciences

Year: 2021


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Paradiplomacy The Management of Foreign Affairs in Iraq after 2005

Assist. Prof Inass Abdulsada Ali, Hussein Mezher Khalaf



policy-making in federal states that have decentralized systems, and on the effectiveness of foreign policy itself. In addition to dropping the foregoing on the Iraqi situation, especially that the Iraqi constitution of 2005 approved decentralization, in both its administrative and political aspects, and defined the competencies and powers of each of the central authority and its affiliated regions, which was directly reflected on the Iraqi external decision-making.
In the context of this research, we will try to verify the validity of the hypothesis that the constitutional articles related to the distribution of the powers of the administration of foreign affairs between the center and the region have generated an imbalance between the authorities, and the continuing conflict in the constitutional powers between the central government and local governments concerning external decision-making and diplomatic representation It has greatly weakened the ability of the central government to direct the policies of the regions according to the national interest and to determine the policies of the regions that impede the development of an effective foreign policy that achieves the country’s interests and gives it an effective presence in the international community.
Therefore, the research raises several questions, the answers to which will be a path to verify the hypothesis and to monitor the most prominent determinants that accompanied the Iraqi political situation after 2003, which had a major role in forming obstacles to the performance of the Iraqi diplomatic work.
1. What are the limits and scope of the powers granted by the 2005 constitution to the central authority and the regions in the field of external decision-making?
2. Was the 2005 constitution able to harmonize the distribution of these powers in a way that prevents a conflict of competencies and powers between the central authority and the regions?
3. What is the impact of the distribution of those powers on Iraqi foreign decision-making after 2005?

Keywords: Iraq; Foreign Policy; Regions; Central Governments; Federal States; Paradiplomacy.