Proceedings of The 2nd World Conference on Social Sciences Studies
Underlying Causes of Conflict in Ethiopia: Historical, Political, and Institutional?
Berihu Asgele Siyum
The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying causes of conflict in Ethiopia and mitigation strategies. After political reforms in 2018 in Ethiopia, persistent conflicts, riots, violations, and political tensions, which remained beyond the control of the government, bring about this study. The finding showed that the conflict dynamics in Ethiopia are complicated and it is increasing from time to time. Since the political reforms in 2018, conflicts have dramatically upsurging, and the government was failed to resolve them peacefully. As a result, the country has entered into a devastative war i.e. Tigray war which is not only affecting the country but also remained the regional crisis in East Africa. Hooliganism, vandalism, mob justice, human rights violation, political instability, and crimes become now the hallmarks of the country. The major causes of recurrent conflicts in Ethiopia are historical narrations, power struggles, land ownership, tribal difference, political interest, and weak institutions. The major actors of conflict in Ethiopia are political entrepreneurs, informal groups such as ‘Fano’ in Amhara and ‘Qeerroo’ in Oromia, regional and state Media, social media activists like tweeps and facebookers, and external forces like Egypt, Eritrea, and Sudan. The neighboring countries are fueling conflicts in Ethiopia to secure their national interest. Because of recurrent conflicts and the current Tigray war, the country is on the verge of disintegration. Therefore, bringing all political parties for fruitful and genuine national political dialogue is a must done to resolve the national problem.
keywords: Causes of Conflict, Actors, War, Tigray, Ethiopia.